InterCom, a customizable weekly newsletter for language professionals, is provided by the Center for Applied Second Language Studies (CASLS) at the University of Oregon. InterCom is sponsored through a Title VI Language Resource Center grant.

Topic of the Week: "But My Language Doesn't Have a Corpus": Building and Using Your Own

by Lindsay Marean, InterCom Editor

One of my favorite languages is Paka’anil, an indigenous California language spoken and taught by fewer than a dozen Tübatulabal people in the area of Lake Isabella. There isn’t a large online corpus like the COCA for Paka’anil, and there are no published curricula like there are for major languages like Spanish and German. Among the available materials are a grammar written in 1935 by a young linguist named Charles Voegelin, and a collection of texts by the same researcher. The Tübatulabal community wants to speak Paka’anil the way their ancestors did, and we are all concerned that basing our learning on the grammar alone may lead us to speak in a way that is grammatically correct, but unlike the way first-language Paka’anil speakers really spoke.  Corpus-driven instruction (CDI) is a promising tool for making more use of the text collection so that we can learn from the actual patterns of Paka’anil as it was spoken in 1935.

I started by going through CALPER’s tutorial.  This tutorial uses WordSmith to do the analyses, but since I use a Mac, I ended up using a different application, the UAM Corpus Tool.

Following the instructions in the tutorial, I created a plain text file with all of the stories in Voegelin’s text collection. I wasn’t sure exactly what questions to ask, so I started by generating a list of the most common words.  Most of the results weren’t very surprising: different forms of the word that means “then” or “and then;” “came” and “went;” and “coyote” (an important figure in Tübatulabal stories). However, the 15th most frequent word jumped out at me: ogon occurred 44 times; Voegelin translated it as an “empty word” or as a “particle with vague modal meaning.” Modern Paka’anil speakers rarely use this word; after all, how does one incorporate an “empty word” into one’s speech? However, its high frequency in these texts tells us that we can’t ignore this word any more; we need to figure out how it is used.

My next step was to do a concordance search to see what occurred before and after the word.  In my small corpus, there are seven instances of a form of wün “be” followed by ogon followed by pinü “the same.”  In other words, I found a common expression that I hadn’t known existed:  wün ogon pinü “it is the same (some event happening).” I created an activity for the Pakanapul language team to work on together to practice using this newly-discovered expression in the appropriate context.

Of course, this single discovery only begins to explain all of the uses of ogon, to say nothing of everything else that we can learn about Paka’anil using a corpus. I learned a few lessons along the way:

•    Set aside some distraction-free time to be curious and explore the corpus.
•    Read about how others are using corpora in language instruction to get some ideas of what to look for (we describe several more resources in this InterCom issue).
•    Seek out professional development opportunities in CDI to get better at asking good questions and turning discoveries into good learning activities.

I hope that you, too, are inspired to try CDI in your own teaching and learning.

Activity of the Week

  • Exploring Spoken L1 Speech Usage with Lextutor.ca

    By Renée Marshall, CASLS Curriculum Consultant

    This activity provides a way to use a corpus with a guiding question or hypothesis in mind. In French the word "donc" is used often in L1 speech but not often in L2 speech. This activity has students listening to an interview and paying attention to when and how the speaker uses "donc." After brainstorming and discussing some of the different usages of "donc" in French speech, students use lextutor.ca to find other similar examples to what they found in the interview. To adapt this to another language, pick a word that is commonly used in spoken speech by L1 speakers but not by L2 speakers. You can use one of the corpora discussed in our February 2, February 9, and February 16 Topic of the Week articles. Otherwise, you can search for a corpus in your target language using Google or a similar search engine. If you cannot find one for your language you can make your own corpus like our editor, Lindsay Marean, describes in this week's Topic of the Week. While the activity here uses a French example and French corpus, the handout is in English so that it can be easily adapted for use in other languages.

    Objectives:

    • Students will be able to identify and hypothesize L1 usage of the word "donc" in spoken speech.
    • Students will be able to use a corpus to identify similar examples of L1 usage of the word "donc" in spoken speech.

    Resources:

    How do Francophone speakers use the word "donc" in conversation? handout

    Teacher Resource sheet

    Procedure:

    1. Let students know that today they are going to be active language learners and create hypotheses of how language is used based on examples from L1 speech in an interview and from a French language corpus. If you have not talked about or used language corpora in your class yet, you may want to briefly discuss what a corpus is and why one might use it.
    2. Pass out the How do Francophone speakers use the word "donc" in conversation? to all students. Have them read directions for #1 (or go over as a whole class).
    3. Play the interview (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEFiWwqG06c) for students three times. You may, on the third listen, want to pause and replay a few of the places where Romain Duris or the interviewer uses "donc." (see Teacher Resource handout for the time stamps of when "donc" is used in the video) You may also want to transcribe some of the sentences used in the interview that include "donc" so that students have the visual, written form in addition to the spoken.
    4. Move to #2 on the handout and have students work with a partner or group to examine the way "donc" was used in the interview. Their goal is to come up with different ways "donc" is used. If they are having trouble with this task, you can model one usage as an example with them. For instance, in the interview Romain Duris uses "donc" combined with "euh..." a few times. In this case, what does "donc" mean here? What is its function? It's used as a filler word, just like "euh..." in French or "um..." and "so..." in English. One hypothesis then of "donc" usage is that French speakers use "donc" as a filler or pause word.
    5. Move to #3 on the handout. You may want to model how to navigate the website and go through the steps as a whole class before having them do it themselves. You can also assign #3 as homework and then complete the rest of the lesson in the next class. In Step #3 students are using a corpus of French language to find examples of L1 usage of "donc" in spoken speech. The goal is for them to find 3 examples of usage of "donc" that coincide with ONE of their hypotheses from #2.
    6. After students collect their three examples, have them discuss their findings with a partner. Then as a class, using student hypotheses, their examples, and examples from the interview, highlight some common usages of "donc." Refer to the Teacher Resource handout for a few examples of "donc" usage. (Note that different sources like websites or books may group together the various usages of "donc" in different ways.)
    7. Encourage students to try out using "donc" more often in their conversations.

    Note: Often spoken speech and written speech are different; certain rules may apply for spoken usage while different rules may apply for written usage. The http://lextutor.ca/conc/fr/ website also includes an option for searching for "donc" in written speech if you would like to examine that in a future lesson.

CASLS Spotlight: New Games 2 Teach Website Launches This Spring

CASLS is proud to announce that a new version of the Games 2 Teach website is going to be launched in the spring of 2015. The updated website offers a more dynamic and engaging experience for users to take full advantage of the resources on Games 2 Teach. The new site still offers the same resources, such as reviews of trending vernacular digital games for how appropriate they are for L2 teaching and learning, but certain features have been updated in order to provide a more seamless user experience. For example, the service to request any of the publications available on Games 2 Teach has been updated to give users access to the publications even faster than before.

Games 2 Teach is codirected by Julie Sykes and Jonathon Reinhardt, and is funded in part by CERCLL, the Center for Educational Resources in Culture, Language, and Literacy. Over the course of the next four years, this project will provide classroom resources for L2 learning activities, academic-level working papers and white papers, a manual for L2 teachers and activities, and summer workshops on L2 pedagogy, all centered on using vernacular digital games in second language acquisition.

Language Corner

15 Most Common Kind Expressions in Arabic

Source: Transparent Language Back to Quick Links

From http://blogs.transparent.com/arabic/

This week the Transparent Language Arabic blog brings us a list of nice expressions that are used in everyday language. The recommendation is to use them profusely.

Access the blot post at http://blogs.transparent.com/arabic/15-most-common-kind-expressions-in-arabic/

Easy Persian - Dictionary, Poetry and More

Source: Easy Persian Back to Quick Links

From http://www.easypersian.com

The website Easy Persian provides free grammar lessons, a dictionary, poetry in Persian, and other language learning resources. Lessons start with the alphabet and go from there.

Access this resource http://www.easypersian.com

A Beginner’s Guide to the Chinese Spring Festival

Source: Transparent Language Back to Quick Links

From http://blogs.transparent.com/chinese/

This blog post provides an overview of the traditions and celebrations during the Chinese Spring Festival. It includes vocabulary, videos, superstitions, a gala and more.

To read more go to http://blogs.transparent.com/chinese/spring-festival-guide/

Urashima Taro - Learn Japanese From a Story

Source: About.com Back to Quick Links

From http://japanese.about.com/

Namiko Abe, a Japanese teacher and translator, posts a famous Japanese story called “Urashima Taro” in both Japanese script and romaji. She includes a list of helpful vocabulary at the end. It could be a culture reading for more intermediate/advanced Japanese learners.

Access this resource at http://japanese.about.com/od/japanesechildrensbooks/fl/Urashima-Taro-Learn-from-a-Story.htm?nl=1

Le Journal de Suzon: Life for a French Girl During World War II

Source: Le Journal de Suzon Back to Quick Links

From http://www.journal-suzon.fr/

What was life like for a French child during World War II? Here is a journal from a French child's perspective, covering the years 1939-1945. Supplements include descriptions of daily life at that time and more information about France during the time of war and a chronology of major events.

Access this French-language resource at http://www.journal-suzon.fr/

Podcast: From Francs to Euros and 10 Tips to Practice your French

Source: Talk in French Back to Quick Links

From https://www.talkinfrench.com/podcast-category/

This week’s Talk in French podcast is on what it was like to switch from Francs to Euros and 10 tips to practice French daily. Frédéric Bibard shares podcasts on his website on a weekly basis, so we’ll follow him for more interesting topics.

To listen to the podcast go to https://www.talkinfrench.com/daily-french-practice/

Activity: Love on Television

Source: Todoele Back to Quick Links

From http://www.todoele.net/

Agustina Menini presents a new activity on todoele.net entitled “El amor en la televisión.” The activity includes a video, which is a mock of a Spanish television dating show, and a lesson plan providing ideas on how to use this video for an entire 50 minute Spanish lesson. Students examine the Spanish slang used in the video and discuss the idea of finding “love” on a television show.

Access this resource at
http://www.todoele.net/actividades/Actividad_maint.asp?ActividadesPage=4&Actividad_id=585

Diminutives: Mi jefa es un cielito

Source: De Boca en Boca Back to Quick Links

From http://debocaenbocacentre.com/

Do you usually teach “diminutivos” in Spanish as a way to express love or affection for someone or something? Well, it’s not always the case, which may leave even high-level students confused. In his blog post, Alberto uses a short narrative to exemplify the common use of diminutives, but also to contrast it with other less known functions. The text could be used with high-intermediate or advanced students to analyze those different uses.

Access the text at http://debocaenbocacentre.com/2015/02/17/mi-jefa-es-un-cielito/

Short Video Lesson: Cambio de pilas

Source: El rincón del profesor de ELE Back to Quick Links

From http://rinconprofele.blogspot.com/

Federico Escudero shares a whole lesson on the topic of friendship using a five-minute film called “Changing batteries”. Since the film features an elderly woman and a robot, the lesson includes some work with other science-fiction movies and he uses it to practice past tenses in Spanish.

Access the lesson at http://rinconprofele.blogspot.com/2015/02/tu-rincon-6-cambio-de-pilas.html and the short film at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_yVo3YOfqQ

Linguee: Online Dictionary with Corpus Examples

Source: Linguee Back to Quick Links

From http://www.linguee.com/english-spanish

Linguee is a unique translation tool combining an editorial dictionary and a search engine with which you can search billions of bilingual texts for words and expressions.

The Linguee search results are divided into several sections. In the top section you are shown results from Linguee’s editorial dictionary. Below you are shown example sentences from other sources to give you an idea of how your search term has been translated in context.

Linguee currently defines and finds examples of English words for Spanish, German, French, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, and Japanese speakers; and Spanish words for English speakers.

Linguee is available at http://www.linguee.com/english-spanish

Data-driven Learning Exercises for English Learners

Source: Gutenberg Universität Back to Quick Links

From http://www.english-linguistics.uni-mainz.de/232.php

Here is a website with links to two learner-centered, inductive exercises for English language learners. The second exercise is especially appropriate for native German speakers.

The exercises are available at http://www.english-linguistics.uni-mainz.de/233.php and http://www.english-linguistics.uni-mainz.de/234.php

Using Google as a Corpus Tool

Source: TESL-EJ Back to Quick Links

From http://tesl-ej.org/ej26/int.html

The Internet is an enormous bank of language in use, and Google is a powerful tool for finding out information about language.

Here is an example of using Google as a corpus tool to investigate English usage: http://tesl-ej.org/ej26/int.html

4 Songs for Dealing with Tricky Conditional Structures

Source: Teach them English Back to Quick Links

From http://www.teachthemenglish.com/

In his blog post, Adam Simpson comes back with some songs that could be used to make the teaching of conditionals much more fun. His original post on songs was very popular, and you can access it here. Read the comments for more ideas, too.

Access the article at http://www.teachthemenglish.com/2015/02/4-songs-for-dealing-with-tricky-conditional-structures/

Larissa and Inspector Z - Phrasal Verbs with Fun

Source: Larissa’s Languages Back to Quick Links

From http://larissaslanguages.blogspot.it/

If you’re looking for engaging ways to present phrasal verbs to students, here’s an idea: Create a comic strip so students can explore the meanings in context. Larissa shows us an example with the verb “look” followed by different particles.

Access the resource at http://larissaslanguages.blogspot.it/2015/02/larissa-and-inspector-z-phrasal-verbs.html

Google Plus Community for Corpus Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning

Source: Google Plus Back to Quick Links

The Google Plus community for corpus linguistics and language teaching and learning is a dedicated online forum for discussing anything related to corpus linguistics and language teaching and learning. Besides regular discussion and resource and idea sharing, there is also a link to a helpful article about how to realistically use corpora in language classrooms: https://www.academia.edu/3368339/Integrating_corpora_with_everyday_language_teaching

Access the Google Plus community at https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/101266284417587206243

Order a Poster for National Foreign Language Week

Source: Alpha Mu Gamma Back to Quick Links

From http://www.lacitycollege.edu/academic/honor/amg/nflw.html

Every year Alpha Mu Gamma celebrates National Foreign Language Week. In 2015 the week will be March 9-15, and the theme is "Learn a Foreign Language: Gain a New Perspective." Every year AMG prints a new poster, available for free to members and for sale to the public. Learn more about NFLW, see what this year's poster looks like, and find out how to order one and how you can celebrate the week at http://www.lacitycollege.edu/academic/honor/amg/nflw.html

Corpus Resources at Brigham Young University

Source: Brigham Young University Back to Quick Links

From http://corpus.byu.edu/overview.asp

Mark Davies, a professor of linguistics at Brigham Young University, has created ten different corpora, focusing on English (American and British), Spanish, and Portuguese. You can access all of them here: http://corpus.byu.edu/corpora.asp

His site also includes corpus tools, available here: http://corpus.byu.edu/resources.asp

Start out here for an overview of the resources available: http://corpus.byu.edu/overview.asp

31 Resources of Royalty-Free Images

Source: Teach thought Back to Quick Links

From http://www.teachthought.com

The use of images is an important part of teachers’ everyday planning, material creation and presentations. Here you have a collection of 31 sites with free images so you don’t have to worry about copyright.

Access the resources at http://www.teachthought.com/digital-media-2/31-sources-of-royalty-free-images/

Professional Development

Call for Papers: Hispanic Linguistics Symposium 2015

Source: LINGUIST List Back to Quick Links

From http://publish.illinois.edu/hisplingsymposium/2015/02/

The Department of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will host the Hispanic Linguistics Symposium from September 24 – 27, 2015. The Hispanic Linguistics Symposium is an annual conference with a focus on theoretical and applied linguistics in Spanish and Portuguese.

Call for Papers:

Abstracts for paper presentations or posters are invited on any area of Hispanic linguistics, and within any theoretical or quantitative framework.

Submission Guidelines:

- Papers and posters may be delivered in English, Portuguese, or Spanish.
- Authors may submit up to two abstracts, one individual and one joint.
- Abstracts should be submitted in .pdf format and should not exceed one page (1-inch margins, 12-point Times New Roman font), with a second page reserved for examples, tables, and references.
- Abstracts must clearly present a specific thesis statement and include a description of the topic, the approach, and conclusions. To preserve anonymity during the review process, authors should not include their names or otherwise reveal their identity anywhere in the abstract.
- Abstracts must be submitted through EasyAbstracts (EasyAbs): http://linguistlist.org/easyabs/HLS2015
- Please specify the title of the paper, area of research, author names, academic affiliations, and email addresses in the form within the abstract submission system.
- Please also specify whether you wish your submission to be considered for presentation as a paper, a poster, or for both categories.
- Abstracts can be submitted through EasyAbs from February 3, 2015 to May 1, 2015.
- Notifications of acceptance/rejection will be sent in mid-July.

For more information visit http://publish.illinois.edu/hisplingsymposium/2015/02/ or http://linguistlist.org/issues/26/26-758.html

Call for Papers: Second Language Acquisition in the Domestic Immersion Context

Source: MLA Back to Quick Links

From http://www.mla.org/convention

Second Language Acquisition in the Domestic Immersion Context
07-Jan-2016 - 10-Jan-2016
Austin, Texas, USA

A special session is being proposed at the 2016 Modern Language Association convention and the organizers are currently accepting papers that examine and provide data on adult L2 learners in domestic immersion contexts from an Applied Linguistics perspective.

Please submit a 250-word abstract by 15 March 2015 to Christina Isabelli (cisabell@iwu.edu).

See the call for proposals at http://www.mla.org/cfp_detail_7755

Access ACTFL 2014 Sessions for Professional Development Credit

Source: ACTFL Back to Quick Links

From http://www.actfl.org/conventions/2014-annual-convention-and-world-languages-expo/access-actfl-2014

Couldn’t attend ACTFL 2014? Not to worry – now you can access many of the same great sessions that convention attendees did – right from the comfort of your own home or classroom! Did attend but couldn’t get to all the sessions? If you missed these great sessions, you can view them as well.

You now have an opportunity to access a selection of sessions from the ACTFL 2014 Convention and earn professional development credits or CEUs.

Learn more at http://www.actfl.org/conventions/2014-annual-convention-and-world-languages-expo/access-actfl-2014

Call for Proposals: CALICO Journal Special Issue

Source: CALICO Journal Back to Quick Links

From http://www.equinoxpub.com/journals/index.php/CALICO/announcement/view/106

We are inviting proposals for the special issue 34.1 of the CALICO Journal to be published in January 2017. With this call for proposals we are looking for (a) guest editor(s). If you are interested in becoming guest editor, please submit a proposal that should have the following rubrics:

(1) name(s) and affiliation(s) of the guest editor(s)
(2) topic of the special issue
(3) rationale for the topic (1 page maximum)
(4) production timeline (containing such dates as deadlines for CfPs, authors, reviewers, revisions)
(5) short CV of each guest editor (with particular emphasis on published research on the topic of the special issue and editing experience) (2 pages maximum per guest editor)
(6) draft Call for Papers for the special issue

We are particularly interested in proposals on the following topic areas: CALL in extracurricular/extramural language learning; Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis in CALL; and learner-computer interaction and learner-computer dialogue. All proposals will be evaluated by CJ’s editorial board and proposals on other topics will be considered.

Informal enquiries as well as the formal proposal can be sent to the editors Mathias Schulze and Bryan Smith at calicojournal@equinoxpub.com. The submission deadline for formal proposals is March 1, 2015.

The special issues of the CALICO Journal present original research on emerging discourses in CALL and on new developments in its sub-areas. Recent and planned special issues of the CALICO Journal:
• CJ 33.1 (2016): Hegelheimer, Dursun, & Li: Automated writing evaluation in language teaching
• CJ 32.3 (2015): Hampel & Stickler: Qualitative and mixed-methods approaches to research in CALL
• CJ 31.1 (2014): Thomas & Peterson: Web 2.0 and language learning
• CJ 30.2 (2013): Chun & Morrison: Learner preparation in technology-enhanced learning environments

See the call for proposals at http://www.equinoxpub.com/journals/index.php/CALICO/announcement/view/106

NECTFL/Travel & Education Summer Program in Salamanca

Source: NECTFL Back to Quick Links

From http://www.nectfl.org/node/3326

The Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages has joined forces with Travel & Education to provide K-16 Spanish teachers with an exciting professional development opportunity abroad. This two-week course, "Contemporary Foreign Language Teaching Methods and the Use of Mobile Technology in the Spanish Language Classroom," is specially designed for teachers who want to enhance their knowledge and skills on the use of technology.

Program Dates:
US Departure: Saturday, June 27th, 2015
US Return: Saturday, July 11th, 2015

Application deadline: March 2, 2015

For full details go to http://www.nectfl.org/node/3326

Publications

Book: English for Academic Purposes

Source: Routledge Back to Quick Links

From http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415716345/

English for Academic Purposes
Edited by Helen Basturkmen
Published by Routledge

English for Academic Purposes (EAP) focuses on the types of English learners encounter and use in academic or study situations, usually in higher education contexts, and on the teaching and learning of academic English. It also focuses on the types of English and forms of communication used by academics in research settings.

This new 4-volume collection from Routledge will highlight key research, thinking and developments in pedagogy and document the concepts and debates that have impacted on EAP over the last three and a half decades. The selection of articles will enable readers to follow the developments and to understand how contemporary perspectives and research interests have emerged. The volumes will include key material that has been influential and represents the diversity of research interests and thinking in the area. Fully indexed, and with a new introduction to each volume by the editor, this collection will be a valuable research resource.

To see the contents or order the book, go to http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415716345/

Book: Korpuslinguistik

Source: ISD, Distributor of Scholarly Books Back to Quick Links

From https://www.isdistribution.com/BookDetail.aspx?aId=54515

Korpuslinguistik
By Carmen Scherer
Published by ISD, Distributor of Scholarly Books

A corpus is a collection of authentic linguistic data. Thus, there are corpora of newspaper language, historical corpora or corpora of children's language. The linguistics of a corpus concerns itself with the construction and analysis of these corpora. Corpus-linguistic knowledge is indispensable because the analysis of a corpus represents the most important empirical methods of linguistics. In this work, the essential aspects of corpus linguistics are explained in detail. Integrated exercises make it possible for the reader to implement the contents in a practical way. The goal of this work is that students learn to establish their own corpora and to use existing ones. This book is a resource for a practice-based study of Germanic linguistics.

For more information or to order the book go to https://www.isdistribution.com/BookDetail.aspx?aId=54515

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